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Why only mechanical elements? ... EMPs

The fear of the arrival of an Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) from the Sun is more than founded on past realities.

In 1859, a large coronal mass ejection or solar flare occurred. Starting on August 28, auroras were observed reaching as far as northern Colombia. The peak intensity was on September 1 and 2, and caused the failure of telegraph systems throughout Europe and North America. The first signs of this incident were detected on August 28, 1859, when the northern lights were seen throughout North America. Intense curtains of light were seen, from Maine to Florida. Even in Cuba, ship captains recorded in their logbooks the appearance of coppery lights near the zenith. At that time the telegraph cables, an invention that had begun to operate in 1843 in the United States, suffered cuts and short circuits that caused numerous fires.

On the other hand, several countries in the atomic energy club have experienced the production of PEMs as a side effect of atomic tests. It was seen that after a nuclear explosion all electronic devices within a certain radius of action were damaged and rendered useless. The greatest gamma radiation, above all, is highly penetrating and interacts with matter, irradiating and ionizing everything, including the surrounding air itself. The gamma radiation is consumed quickly and creates a zonal electromagnetic field kilometers in diameter.

About natural Electromagnetic Pulses

Therefore, we and our environment could be subjected to an EMP, both due to natural and man-made causes. In any case, an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) produced by the Sun, similar to the Carrington event of 1859, would have significant and potentially devastating effects on modern technology. The Carrington event was an extremely powerful geomagnetic storm, it created spectacular auroral effects, but also disrupted the telegraph networks that existed at the time. Today, an event of similar magnitude would affect technological infrastructure in several ways: Power grids: Geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) could flow through high-voltage power grids, damaging transformers and other critical components. This could cause widespread and long-lasting blackouts, affecting millions of people. Repairing this damage could take weeks, months or even years in the most extreme cases, due to the complexity and cost of large transformers. Satellites and Communications: A solar EMP could damage or destroy satellites in orbit, affecting GPS navigation, cellular communications, and data transmission. This would have a direct impact on almost every aspect of daily life, from personal navigation to commercial and military operations that depend on the accuracy of GPS. Information and communications technology (ICT): Telecommunications systems and data networks could experience significant disruptions. Electronic equipment, data centers, and internet infrastructure could be damaged due to power fluctuations and induced currents, affecting commerce, banking, and emergency services. Transportation: Control systems for air, sea and land transportation could be affected, causing disruptions to travel and goods distribution logistics. Water and sanitation systems: These systems could fail if electric pumps and electronic controls are affected by a lack of power, which would have a direct impact on public health and hygiene. Modern society's reliance on electronic technology and power grids makes a large-magnitude solar EMP event a serious concern. Preparing for an event of this nature involves improving the resilience of critical infrastructure, including protecting electrical and communications systems, as well as creating long-term emergency and recovery plans.